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( 2-2 ) JOURNAL OF EMERGENCY MENTAL HEALTH

Volume 2, Number 2

SPECIAL ARTICLES
"Pastoral Crisis Intervention": Toward a Definition
- George S. Everly, Jr., Ph.D.

 

ABSTRACT: The pastoral community represents a large and often untapped resource in times of crisis.  It possesses a unique aggregation of characteristics that makes it uniquely valuable amidst the turmoil of a psychological crisis. In critical incidents such as terrorism, mass disasters, violence, the loss of loved ones, and any events wherein human actions result in injury, destruction, and/or death, the pastoral community may possess especially powerful restorative attributes. Unfortunately, heretofore, there has existed no generally recognized and accepted manner in which the healing factors inherent in pastoral care have been functionally integrated with the well-formulated principles of crisis intervention. This paper represents an initial effort to elucidate how the principles of pastoral care may be functionally integrated with those of crisis intervention. The amalgam shall heretofore be referred to as “pastoral crisis intervention” and is defined herein. 

 

Mental Mobilization Processes in Critical Incident Stress Situations
- Atle Dyregrov, Ph.D.
- Roger Solomon, Ph.D.
- Carl Fredrik Bassoe, Ph.D.

 

ABSTRACT: In this article, the psychological emergency mobilization process that takes place in threat situations is postulated. Mental mobilization is the increased mental capability of the mind in critical situations to process incoming and stored information to enable adaptive survival responses. The processes that are mobilized in the service of survival are enhanced sensory awareness, focused attention, rapid processing of incoming data, and use of previous experience, enhanced memory, altered time perception, and temporary deactivation of emotional reactions. From a clinical standpoint, it is important that the survival value of these processes is understood, as survivors can be helped to feel a sense of accomplishment and empowerment when they are taken through a critical situation in a detailed way and discover that they have been able to function well and survive by use of their stored “experience,” rapid processing of information or other aspects of their mental mobilization.

LITERATURE REVIEWS
Posttraumatic Stress Symptomatology and Cancer
- Monica Neel, M.S.

ABSTRACT:  The extant nosological formulations of the American Psychiatric Association denotes the Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) maybe predicted upon some life threatening experience.  Historically, combat, robbery, rape, and serious accidents have been included as traumatogenetic stressors.  Only recently has life-threatening illness been considered as a traumatogenetic stressor.  This paper reviews the relativity between cancer and posttraumatic stress. 

CASE REPORTS
Group Crisis Intervention in a School Setting Following an Attempted Suicide
- Eileen C. Newman, Ph.D.

ABSTRACT:  The risk of suicide is, indeed, significant during adolescence.  Regardless of whether the suicide attempt culminates in death (suicide), serious injury, minor injury, or no injury at all (parasuicides), the attempt, in and of itself, will send shock waves through any and all groups of which the adolescent was a member.  These friends and family members of the adolescent who attempted suicide become the unwilling and vicarious victims of the suicide attempt.  A rapid and assertive emergency mental health response to any given suicide attempt is clearly recommended.  This paper reviews the phenomenon of adolescent suicide and offers a case study on the use of a rapid and efficient group crisis intervention, referred to as a Crisis Management Briefing (CMB; Everly, 2000), directed towards the vicarious victims of an adolescent suicide attempt. 

 

Case Report of Critical Incident Stress Debriefing through Translators
- CDR Peter K. True, M.C., U.S.N.

ABSTRACT:  The United States Navy has SPRINT (Special Psychiatric Rapid Intervention Team) teams stationed in National Naval Medical Center in Bethesda, Maryland, Naval Regional Medical Center in Portsmouth, Virginia, Naval Regional Medical Center in San Diego, California, and US Naval Hospital, Bremerton, Washington.  These teams are large units of psychiatrists, psychologists, nurses, chaplains, and hospital corpsmen who are trained in the techniques of Critical Incident Stress using the model developed by Jeffery T. Mitchell and George S. Everly, Jr. (Mitchell & Everly, 1996; Everly & Mitchell, 1999).  In addition to these large SPRINT teams, small Critical Incident Stress Management (CISM) teams exist at several Navy commands, including US Naval Hospital, Jacksonville, Florida.  Since the formation of SPRINT teams, there have been several hundred interventions done at various military sites.  This article discusses an intervention that was particularly unusual in that it was done by UN military personnel for the members of the Argentine military, no of whom could speak English. 

PROGRAM DEVELOPMENT
Coping with Psychological Aftermath of School Violence: The Teacher and the Assaulted Staff Action Program
- Richard L. Levenson, Jr., Ph.D., C.T.S.
- Michelle Memoli, C.S.W.
- Raymond B. Flannery, Jr. Ph.D.

 

ABSTRACT: Violence in the United States has become a national public health epidemic.  Increasingly, much of this violence has been committed by our young people. School settings have not been exempt from these aggressive acts, and principals, teachers, and support staff have been victims of murder, physical and sexual assaults, verbal threats, and the destruction of personal property. This present paper outlines a cost-effective, empirically-based, crisis intervention approach that was designed for health care providers, and that has immediate application to providers of school psychological services.  Known as the Assaulted Staff Action Program (ASAP), ASAP has provided needed support to these employee victims of violence and has been associated with sharp reductions in facility violence. Since ASAP interventions are appropriate for all victims of violence, the implications of an ASAP approach for school faculty and staff victims are examined.  The roles of school counselors in designing, fielding, and maintaining an ASAP program are presented.

Disaster Psychosocial Serivces in Hong Kong-Make the Unseen Injury Seen
- Rosalie S.Y. Kwong Lo

 

ABSTRACT: While intervention services for the physical consequences of disaster and trauma have been in evidence for decades, only within recent years has serious attention been paid to the psychological consequences of disaster. This paper describes the development of a program of psychosocial services designed to respond to the needs of the people of Hong Kong in the wake of a disaster. 

CONTINUING EDUCATION
Crisis Intervention: A Review
- Raymond B. Flannery, Jr. Ph.D.
- George S. Everly, Jr., Ph.D.

 

ABSTRACT:  Critical incidents are sudden, unexpected, often life-threatening time-limited events that may overwhelm an individual's capacity to respond adaptively.  Frequently, extreme critical incident stressors may result in personal crises, traumatic stress, and even Posttraumatic Stress Disorder.  This paper presents a concise, fully-referenced, state-of-the-art review of crisis intervention procedures within the context of Critical Incident Stress Management (CISM; Everly & Mitchell, 1999; Flannery, 1999). 

 

EMERGENCY MENTAL HEALTH UPDATES
Selected Annotated Journal Resources
- Anthony N. DiFabio, M.A.
- Cindy Eaves, M.S.

BOOK REVIEWS
Acute Stress Disorder: A Handbook of Theory, Assessment, and Treatment
- Richard A. Bryant, Ph.D.
- Allison G. Harvey, Ph.D.

CopShock: Surviving Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD)
- Allen R. Kates




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